Officials report seismic activity, heavy gas emissions and changes in the crater lake of the once dormant La Soufrière and Mount Pelée volcanoes.
Decades of quiet volcanoes have come alive in the eastern Caribbean, prompting officials to issue warnings in Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines as scientists rush to study activity they say does not has not been observed for years.
The most recent warning was issued Tuesday evening for the La Soufrière volcano in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, an island chain home to more than 100,000 people. Officials have reported tremors, heavy gas emissions, the formation of a new volcanic dome and change to its crater lake.
The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency said scientists on Tuesday observed an “effusive eruption in the crater, with gas and vapor visible.”
The UWI-SRC has received reports of activity in St Vincent which could be linked to the La Soufrière volcano. We are currently monitoring the situation in collaboration with the local authorities. The public is advised not to visit the volcano until an update is given.
– UWISeismic research (@uwiseismic) December 29, 2020
The government warned those who lived near the volcano to prepare to evacuate if necessary, declaring an amber alert meaning eruptions could occur with less than 24 hours’ notice.
La Soufrière, located near the northern tip of the main island of St Vincent, last erupted in 1979, and a previous eruption in 1902 killed some 1,600 people.
This happened shortly before Martinique’s Mount Pelée erupted and destroyed the town of Saint-Pierre, killing more than 30,000 people.
Mount Pelée is also active again. At the beginning of December, the officials of the French Caribbean territory issued a yellow alert due to seismic activity under the mountain. It was the first alert of its kind issued since the volcano’s last eruption in 1932, Fabrice Fontaine, of the Martinique Volcanological and Seismological Observatory, told the Associated Press.
While the eastern Caribbean is a long chain of active and extinct volcanoes, volcanologist Erik Klemetti, of Denison University in Ohio, said activity at Mount Pelee and La Soufrière was unrelated.
“It’s not like a volcano starts to erupt that others will,” he said. “It falls into the category of coincidence.”
He said the activity proves the magma is lurking underground and percolating to the surface, although he added that scientists still don’t fully understand what controls how quickly this happens.
“The answers are not entirely satisfactory,” he said. “This is the science that is still being researched.”
Klemetti said the most active volcano in recent years in the eastern Caribbean has been Soufriere at Montserrat, which has erupted continuously since 1995, destroying the capital of Plymouth and killing at least 19 people in 1997.
Seventeen of the 19 living volcanoes in the Eastern Caribbean are located on 11 islands, with the other two lying underwater near the island of Grenada, including one called Kick ‘Em Jenny which has been active in recent years.